Jokhtaniskhevi Village-Site is located in Tbilisi municipality, northeast of the village Gldani, at
WREP KP 0+150 identified as CH 463 (GPS coordinates: NW-E 8485392.150; N 4633191.792; NE-
E 8485428.005; N 4633174.061; SW-E 8485356.689; N 4633120.083; SE-E 8485392.538; N
4633102.354) (fig. I-III). The village-site represents a terrace settlement situated on the mountain
(fig. I-II). Structures of residential and household function were mainly oriented west to east. Large
stones – orthostats – are placed randomly in the stone-built walls. Clay soil including ash is used as
joining material. Wooden posts which were set into the walls functioned as a support to the flat
roofing (fig. IV-1). The floor is made of rammed earth (fig. V). Numerous and diverse archaeological
material found at the village-site is of particular significance. The collection contains: plain and
glazed ceramics; iron, glass, bone, stone and wood artifacts; coins; remains of leather and textile and
so on (fig. VI-VIII). Crop farming is believed to have played a leading role in the agricultural activity
of the population of that period. A large amount of common wheat was found there. Grains of rye and
barley were also revealed. The artifacts uncovered as a result of the excavations, such as threshing
stones (fig. VIII-43), bone or horn finger protectors (fig. VIII-56-59), ovens and clay pans (fig. V-2;
fig. VI-6) were related to the production and consumption of grain varieties. Vine-growing and wine-
making occupied a large place in the agricultural activity of the population. Wine-jars and pits for this
type of vessels (fig. VI-1,2), numerous jugs and bowls assigned for wine (fig. VI-43-54) were
discovered at the village-site. Iron hoes, pruning and curved knives were related to tending vine
(fig. VIII-1,7-10). Cattle-breeding was one of agricultural activities of the local population.
Considering the percentage, cows predominated in the osteological material – 59.13%. It was
followed by sheep/goats and pigs with 13.10%. Hens accounted for 1.98%. Apparently, the
population was mainly engaged in cattle breeding. According to the revealed archaeological material
and numismatic data, the village ceased to function at the end of the 13th century or at the beginning
of the 14th century AD.
Trialeti petroglyphs are concentrated in Southern Georgia, in the village Gantiadi,on the canyon-like
valley of the Avdriskhevi river, on the bare rocks of the river terraces. In several small-sized caves
found in that valley, a lot of obsidian tools and stone debitague were found, as well as a small number
of quaternary fauna. According to the typological characteristics of the lithics, Moustarian and
Mesolithic periods were identified, as well as the Bronze Age artifacts. On the outer surface of the
bare rock scraped images were found, in particular: deer, Caucasian ibices, roes, horses, camels,
reptiles, fantastic and hybrid creatures, also, certain compositions – a symbolically depicted scene of
chase, a herd of horses, etc. Some solar signs and unknown symbols are identified along with the
anthropomorphic images – a hunter with bows and arrows. Based on the technique, style, content,
relative analysis and a number of other features, in petroglyphs two chronological groups can be
distinguished: the Mesolithic and Calcholithic-Bronze Ages; however, it is difficult to clearly
differentiate these groups from one another. In 2018, as a result of the short term survey, several new
spots of images and rock shelters were discovered, which made clear that the valley of the
Avdriskhevi river used to be entirely inhabited by humans in prehistory time. Comprehensive
scientific research of the petroglyphs at up-to-date techno18 logical level will enable to reconstruct
paleo-environment, types of economy, household, customs and traditions, faith and notions of the
prehistory man. It is noteworthy that Trialeti petroglyphs have become a certified member of the
Cultural Routes of the prehistory Art of Europe.
საფეიქრო საქმიანობის უძველესი ნიმუშების შესწავლისათვის
This article reviews ancient textile related archaeological finds from prehistoric period documented on the territory of Georgia. These are finds from various research projects carried out in throughout the past several decades. The artifacts are preserved at the Georgian National Museum and include textile fragments as well as tools related to textile manufacture. The oldest evidence of flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibers are documented in all layers of the Upper Paleolithic Site Dzuduzuana (west Georgia). They have traces of color and one of the threads was twisted. [Kvavadze E., Ofer B., Belfer- Cohen An., Boaretto El., Jakeli N., Matskevich Z., Meshveliani T. 2009]. At the archaeological sites of Neolithic-Chalcolithic periods belonging to Shulaveri-Shomutepe Culture are documented fibers, fragments of textiles, and big number stone and bone tools for textile production. These are finds from the settlements. Through this material it is obvious that textile production is to be considered as one of the dominant activities of these societies. Textile fragment are documented at the Kurgan sites of Early Bronze Age. These are part of the richly decorated burials. The fragments provide information about the craftsmanship, waving technique, rituals, and tradition. These materials are the main subject of the study. Research methodology includes microscopic study of the materials, preparation of detail graphic and photo documentation, identification of the textile type, techniques of knitting and dyeing, which kind of colorants were used. Prehistoric textile fragments and tools for production are important testimony for reconstruction of everyday life, economical activities, and traditions of ancient cultures.
One of the most important events in the activities of the Imperial Geographical Society of Russia (established in 1850 in Tbilisi) was establishment of a museum.
On May 10, 1852 (May 22, A.D.), at the meeting of the Board of Governors of the Caucasus Division of the Russian Geographical Society, a project on the establishment of a museum with the department was presented by V. Sologub, on which an appropriate resolution was adopted. This date is considered to be the day of founding of the museum in Georgia. The museum was originally intended to be ethnographic but it came out complex in its nature. The collections of 105 units (V. Sologub, Al. Ivanitsky and L. Cholokashvili) formed the foundations of the museum. Subsequently the funds grew rapidly with donations and purchased items.
The Caucasus Museum had a dedicated staff. They worked tirelessly for the development and enrichment of the museum: they popularized the museum to raise lucrative funds. Expeditions were organized not only in Georgia and other regions of the Caucasus but also in Persia and interesting museum items were brought. The article presents some items from rich collections that the Georgian State Museum (founded in 1919 on the basis of the Caucasus Museum) inherited from the Caucasus Museum.